Saturday, 31 July 2010

Notre Dame Cathedral


Notre Dame de Paris (French for "Our Lady of Paris", meaning the church in Paris dedicated to the Virgin Mary), often known simply as Notre Dame in English, is a gothic cathedral on the eastern half of the Île de la Cité in Paris, France, with its main entrance to the west. While a major tourist destination, it is still used as a Roman Catholic cathedral (archbishop of Paris). Notre Dame de Paris is widely considered the finest example of French gothic architecture.




Architect: Maurice de Sully
Location: Parvis de Notre Dame. 75004 Paris, France.
date: 1163 to 1250
Style: Gothic
Construction: cut stone
Type: Church

Château de Chenonceau

The original manor was torched in 1411 to punish owner Jean Marques for an act of sedition. He rebuilt a castle and fortified mill on the site in the 1430s. Subsequently, his indebted heir Pierre Marques sold the castle to Thomas Bohier, Chamberlain for King Charles VIII of France in 1513. Bohier destroyed the existing castle and built an entirely new residence between 1515 and 1521; the work was sometimes overseen by his wife Katherine Briçonnet, who delighted in hosting French nobility, including King François L on two occasions.



Architect: Philibert Delorme
Location: Loire Valley, north-western France.
Date: 1521
Style: French Renaissance (mixture of late Gothic and early Renaissance)
Construction: Stone
Type: Palace

Tower Bridge

In the second half of the nineteenth century increased commercial development in the East End of London led to a requirement for a new river crossing downstream of London Bridge. A traditional fixed bridge could not be built because it would cut off access to the port facilities situated at that time in the Pool of London, between London Bridge and the Tower of London. A tunnel beneath the Thames, the Tower Subway, was opened in 1870, but it could only accommodate pedestrian traffic.

Construction of the bridge started in 1886 and took 8 years, employing 5 major contractors and 432 construction workers. Two massive piers, containing over 70,000 tons of concrete, were sunk into the river bed to support the construction. Over 11,000 tons of steel provided the framework for the towers and walkways. This was then clad in Cornish granite and Portland stone, both to protect the underlying steelwork and to give the bridge a pleasing appearance.

A computer system was installed in 2000 to control the raising and lowering of the bascules remotely. Unfortunately this has proved less reliable than desired, resulting in the bridge being stuck in the open or closed positions on a number of occasions (most recently 2 June 2005).


Architect: Horace Jones
Location: over the Thames, east of the city,London.
Date: 1886 to 1894
Construction: masonry and steel
Style: Tudorbethan
Type: Bridge

Holocaust Memorial Museum

The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum is a national institution situated in a prominent location adjacent to The National Mall in Washington, DC however, it is not a constituent institution of the Smithsonian Institution. The museum is dedicated to documenting, studying, and interpreting the history of the Holocaust. It also serves as the United States' official memorial to the millions of European Jews and others killed during the Holocaust under directives of Nazi Germany.

The museum building sits on land that previously belonged to the United States Department of Agriculture. Two of the three annex buildings that sat on this property were demolished to build a museum whose design would be wholly about the Holocaust.

Architect: James Ingo Freed, FAIA, Pei Cobb Freed & Partners
Location: Washington, DC
Date: 1993
Style: Postmodern
Construction: stone cladding
Type: museum

U.S. Pavilion, Montreal Expo

The architect of the geodesic dome was Richard Buckminster Fuller. The building originally formed an enclosed structure of steel and acrylic cells, 76 meters (250 feet) in diameter and 62 meters (200 feet) high. A complex system of shades was used to control the internal temperature.

The architects for the interior exhibition space were from Golden Metak Productions. Visitors had access to four large theme platforms divided into seven levels. The building included a 37-meter-long escalator, the longest ever built at the time.

Architect: R. Buckminster Fuller
Location: Montreal, Canada
Date: 1967
Style: A real high point in '60s Futurism
Construction: transparent acrylic bubble with steel latticework
Type: Pavilion

Supreme Court of the United States

Prior to the establishment of the Federal City, the United States government resided briefly in New York City, New York (where the Supreme Court met for the first time, in the Merchants Exchange Building) and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

After the federal government was established in Washington, the court was housed in a small basement room in the United States Capitol. It remained in the Capitol until 1935, with the exception of a period from 1812 to 1817, during which the Court was absent from Washington because of the British invasion of Washington and destruction of the Capitol in the War of 1812.

Architect: Cass Gilbert, FAIA
Location: Washington, DC
Date: 1935
Style: NeoClassical
Construction: Stone (Limestone clad)
Type: Government

The White House

The White House is the official home and principal workplace of the President of the United States of America. Built between 1792 and 1800 of white-painted Aquia sandstone in the late Georgian style, it has been the executive residence of every U.S. President since John Adams. In 1814, during the War of 1812, the mansion was set ablaze by British troops, destroying the interior and charring much of the exterior walls. Reconstruction began almost immediately and President James Monroe moved into the partially reconstructed house in October 1817. Construction continued with the addition of the South Portico in 1824 and the North in 1829. Due to crowding within the executive mansion itself, President Theodore Roosevelt had nearly all work offices relocated to the newly constructed West Wing in 1901.

Today, the White House Complex includes the Executive Residence, as well as East and West Wings. The White House is made up of six stories: the Ground Floor, State Floor, Second Floor, and Third Floor, as well as a two-story basement. It is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D.C.

Architect: James Hoban
Location: Washington, DC
Date: 1792
Style: Renaissance Revival
Construction: stone, render
Type: House , Government

Library of Congress


The Library of Congress is the de facto national library of the United States and the research arm of the United States Congress. Located in Washington, D.C., it is the largest by shelf space and one of the most important libraries in the world. Its collections include more than 30 million cataloged books and other print materials in 470 languages; more than 58 million manuscripts; the largest rare book collection in North America, including a Gutenberg Bible over 1 million US Government publications; 1 million issues of world newspapers spanning the past three centuries; 33,000 bound newspaper volumes; 500,000 microfilm reels; over 6,000 comic book[3] titles; the world's largest collection of legal materials; films; 4.8 million maps; sheet music; and 2.7 million sound recordings. The head of the Library is the Librarian of Congress.

The Guinness Book of World Records currently lists the Library of Congress as the "World's Largest Library".

This apparently is based on the shelf space the collection occupies; the Library of Congress states that its collection fills about 530 miles (850 km), while the British Library, reports about 388 miles (625 km) of shelves. The Library of Congress holds about 130 million items with 29 million books against approximately 150 million items with 25 million books for the British Library.
Architect: John L. Smithmeyer, FAIA, and Paul J. Pelz, FAIA
Location: Washington, DC
Date: 1897
Style: NeoClassical
Construction: Stone (Limestone clad)
Type: Government Library

Thursday, 29 July 2010

The New York Public Library

New York Public Library
The New York Public Library (NYPL) is one of the leading public libraries of the world and is one of America's most significant research libraries. It is unusual in that it is composed of a very large circulating public library system combined with a very large non-lending research library system. It is simultaneously one of the largest public library systems in the United States and one of the largest research library systems in the world. It is a privately managed, nonprofit corporation with a public mission, operating with both private and public financing. Its flagship building, on Fifth Ave. running from 40th to 42nd Street in Manhattan, is a National Historic Landmark.
The historian David McCullough has described the New York Public Library as one of the five most important libraries in America, the others being the Library of Congress, the Boston Public Library, and the university libraries of Harvard and Yale.
Although it is called the "New York Public Library" the system does not cover all five boroughs of America's largest city, only Manhattan, The Bronx and Staten Island. New York City does not have a single public library system but three of them. The other two are the Brooklyn Public Library and the Queens Borough Public Library, serving the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, respectively. This came about because these three library systems predate the consolidation of New York City in 1898.


Architect: Carrere & Hastings
Location: Fifth Ave., bet. W40 and W42.
Date: 1911
Style: Beaux-Arts
Construction: stone
Type: Library

Tower of London


The Tower of London is a landmark in central London in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets just outside the City of London.

The White Tower, the square building with turrets on each corner that gave it its name, is actually in the middle of a complex of several buildings along the River Thames in London, which have served as fortresses, armories, treasuries, zoos/menageries, mints, palaces, places of execution, public records offices, observatories, shelters, and prisons (particularly for upper class prisoners). This last use has led to the phrase "sent to the Tower" meaning "imprisoned". One widely known example was that Elizabeth I was imprisoned for a time in the Tower during her sister Mary's reign.

Architect: Unknown
Location: East London
Date: 1070 to 1090
Style: Gothic Elizabethan
Construction: Masonry
Type: Castle, fortress, prison

Siegessaeule

Victory Column: Siegessäule
The Victory Column (German: Siegessäule) is one of the more famous sights of Berlin. Designed by Heinrich Strack after 1864 to commemorate the Prussian victory in the Danish-Prussian war, by the time it was inaugurated on 2 September 1873 Prussia had also defeated Austria in the Austro-Prussian War and France in the Franco-Prussian War (1870/1871), giving the statue a new purpose. Different from the original plans, these later victories inspired the addition of the bronze sculpture of Victoria, 8.3 meters high and weighing 35 tonnes, designed by Friedrich Drake. Berliners, with their fondness for disrespectful names of famous buildings, call the statue Goldelse, meaning something like "golden Lizzy".

Architect: Heinrich Strack
Location: in the Tiergarten on axis with the Brandenburg Gate on the Unter den Linden
Date: 1864
Style: NeoClassical
Type: Monument
Construction: Anchored on a solid fundament of polished red granite, the column sits on a hall of pillars with a glass mosaic designed by Anton von Werner. The column itself consists of three solid blocks of sandstone, which are decorated by cannon pipes captured from the enemies of the aforementioned three wars.

Monday, 26 July 2010

Saint Paul's Cathedral


Saint Paul's Cathedral is a cathedral on Ludgate Hill, in the City of London, and the seat of the Bishop of London. The present building dates from the 17th century, and is generally reckoned to be London's fourth St Paul's Cathedral, although the number is higher if every major medieval reconstruction is counted as a new cathedral.

Architect: Sir Christopher Wren
Location: On the river, in the heart of the Roman / mediaeval city (Ludgate Hill, London).
Date: 1675 to 1710
Style: English Baroque
Construction: Masonry dome peaks at 366 feet
Type: Church

Sunday, 25 July 2010

Brandenburg Gate


The Brandenburg Gate is a triumphal arch and the symbol of Berlin, Germany. It is located at 52°30'58.4?N, 13°22'38.7?E on the Pariser Platz and is the only remaining gate of a series through which one formerly entered Berlin. One block to its north lies the Reichstag. It constitutes the monumental termination of Unter den Linden, the renowned boulevard of linden trees which led directly to the royal residence. It was commissioned by Friedrich Wilhelm II as a sign of peace and built by Carl Gotthard Langhans from 1788 to 1791.

Architect: Carl Gotthard Langhans
Location: Pariser Platz, central Berlin
Date: 1788 to 1791
Style: Greek Revival
Construction: Stone
Type: Monument

Statue of Liberty


Statue of Liberty
Liberty Enlightening the World known more commonly as the Statue of Liberty is a large statue that was presented to the United States by France in 1886. It stands at Liberty Island, New York in New York Harbor as a welcome to all visitors, immigrants, and returning Americans. The copper patina-clad statue, dedicated on October 28, 1886, commemorates the centennial of the United States and is a gesture of friendship from France to America. Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi sculpted the statue and obtained a U.S. patent useful for raising construction funds through the sale of miniatures. Alexandre Gustave Eiffel engineered the internal structure.

Eugene Viollet-le-Duc was responsible for the choice of copper in the statue's construction and adoption of the reposes technique. The statue is a central part of Statue of Liberty National Monument, administered by the National Park Service.


Architect Sculptor: Auguste Frederic Bartholdi
Structural Engi. : Gustave Eiffel
Date :1884
Style : Neoclassical realistic sculpture
Construction : Iron frame, copper cladding
Type : Monumental Statue and Observation Tower

Location : Liberty Island, New York, Harbor.

Eiffel Tower

The Eiffel Tower
The Eiffel Tower (French: Tour Eiffel) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the River Seine in Paris. It is the tallest structure in Paris and among the most recognized symbols in the world. Named after its designer, engineer Gustave Eiffel, it is a premier tourist destination.

Architect: Gustave Eiffel.
Date: 1887 to 1889.
Style: structural expressionist Victorian Industrial.
Construction: steel 300 m (985 ft) tall.
Type: Tower built for 1889 World Exposition Monument.
Location: Avenue Gustave Eiffel, by the river Seine.

Tuesday, 20 July 2010

Revolution of Architect

From very beginning of human civilization people made home. With the change of time period people moderate there home. At first they live in cave and now they live skyscraper so its a Architecture revolution. This way Isa Khan(c.1529 – September 1599) came Dhaka, narayangong and made many buildings. This buildings is one of them but now those buildings are spoilt. Moreover those architects are really wonder for now.

Panam city was built by the upper-middle class Bengali businessmen, mainly Hindu cloth merchants, in the 19th century. It was built in the once capital of Bangladesh – Sonargaon. Sonargaon was the capital of the ancient kingdom ruled by Isa Khan of Bengal. This city is now in ruins.


Type: Living place

Date: Early 14th century
Architectural style: Ancient
Location: Panam city, Sonargaon

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